To achieve these objectives, GATT plans to sign agreements to substantially reduce tariffs and other trade barriers, as well as to eliminate discriminatory treatment in international trade on the basis of reciprocity and reciprocal benefits. The agreement provides for a number of rights and obligations (or codes of conduct) that must be respected by the signatory countries (the parties) as well as mechanisms for resolving the controversy. In particular, the GATT serves as a framework for the organisation of general rounds of negotiations between Member States. Eight such rounds took place and the last, the Uruguay Round, began in September 1986 in Punta del Este (Uruguay). This round culminated in April 1994, after a slow and laborious negotiation process that enabled the United States and the European Union to reach an agreement on agricultural production and trade policy. Although the results of this round have been below the initial objectives, significant progress has been made, taking into account the resurgence of protectionism and trade-distorting practices in recent years, particularly in industrialized countries. It is interesting to note that Colombia clung to the GATT in 1981. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) on the protection of human, animal or plant health was so vague that many countries used « health requirements » as trade barriers. These concerns were taken into account in the rules on multilateral trade relations of the 1994 Uruguay Round, which brought food and agricultural products into the set of international trade rules. It led to the adoption of the SPS Enforcement Agreement (Laws, Regulations and Procedures) and an updated Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (OTC), which ensured fair and effective international trade on the basis of equity and access to global food markets. These agreements should define the conditions for transparency, equivalence, regionalization, harmonisation and national sovereignty when countries establish regulatory measures to ensure food security, consumer protection and plant and animal health.
Unjustified health measures as impediments to trade have been discouraged unless such measures have scientific evidence and risk assessment principles. Through the World Trade Organization (WTO), there is a scientifically sound approach to negotiating and resolving conflicts to prevent food security from being an intractable barrier to trade. The GATT came into force on January 1, 1948. From the beginning, it was refined, which eventually led to the creation, on 1 January 1995, of the World Trade Organization (WTO), which absorbed and expanded it. To date, 125 nations signed its agreements, which covered about 90% of world trade. , to solve exchange rate problems, to create price transparency, to create a single financial market, to stabilise prices, to keep interest rates low and to provide a currency that is used internationally and protected from shocks by the scale of domestic trade within the euro area.