Sélectionner une page

The Potsdam Agreement was the August 1945 agreement between three World War II allies, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union. It was about the military occupation and reconstruction of Germany, its borders and the entire territory of the European theatre of war. He also looked at the demilitarization of Germany, reparations and the prosecution of war criminals. As in Tehran and Yalta, it was Stalin who impressed Western observers the most. One of Churchill`s ministers wrote about how the Soviet dictator « expressed himself calmly and briefly in the small phrases of stakkatos… in discussions, Stalin was often humorous, never offensive; directly and uncompromisingly… ». And one of Truman`s advisers noted that « Stalin`s spirit had a powerful fighting power. With regard to the inclusion of conflicting arguments and comments, the points raised. then… he takes them one by one and answers them with counter-records. The agreement, which was a communiqué, was not a peace treaty between the peoples, although it created the fait accompli. It was replaced by the Treaty on the Definitive Regime, signed on 12 September 1990, in accordance with Germany. A week after the conference, Truman Stalin said that the United States now had « a new weapon of particular destructive force » – he did not say it was the atomic bomb. Stalin, the president recalls, shows « no unusual interest. » This is probably because the Soviet dictator already knew of his existence through his spies in the West, but he told Truman that he was happy to hear it and that he hoped that we would use it « well against the Japanese ».

In the statement of the Potsdam conference on Germany, it is stated: « The intention of the Allies is to enable the German people to prepare for a possible reconstruction of their lives on a democratic and peaceful basis. » The four areas of occupation of Germany, designed at the Yalta conference, were created, each to be managed by the commander-in-chief of the Soviet, British, American or French occupation army. Berlin, Vienna and Austria were also divided into four zones of occupation. An allied supervisory board, made up of representatives of the four allies, should deal with issues relating to Germany and Austria as a whole. Their policy was dictated by the « five Ds » decided in Yalta: demilitarization, denatalization, democratization, decentralization and deindustrialization. Each Allied power had to seize repairs to its own areas of occupation, while the Soviet Union was allowed 10 to 15 percent of industrial equipment in western Germany in exchange for agricultural and other natural products in its area. The Potsdam conference, a meeting of the victorious Allied leaders in Europe, attempted to deal with the delicate balance of forces of opposing government structures, democracy and communism.