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Trade and economic relations between the two countries have long been victims of geopolitics. The main obstacle was the problem of the four southern Kuril Islands occupied by the Soviet Union at the end of World War II and previously held by Japan. Until a few years ago, many areas in which Russia and China cooperate today – transport infrastructure, energy, telecommunications and high-tech military sales – were de facto closed to Russia`s Chinese partners, as Moscow has focused more on Europe as a priority economic partner, source of international funding and provider of advanced technologies. Moscow`s orientation toward China, accelerated by the collapse of its relations with the West with ukraine, has allowed the Kremlin to keep some of its main public assets – Rosneft, Gazprom and the Jamal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) project – running despite Western sanctions. Beijing is trying to implement its vision of multipolarity to a large extent within the existing international system. President Xi reaffirmed the importance of Beijing playing a greater role in global governance and playing an active role in global governance, a role that does not seem to interest Russia as much. Indeed, Xi has begun to view China as an advocate of economic globalization and inclusion, as well as a pioneer in tackling global challenges such as climate change14 Contrary to Russia`s willingness to take big risks, China`s approach is generally cautious and reflects its desire to safeguard its economic interests. China certainly undermines the established international system, for example when it violates international trade standards, but it usually does so for trade reasons. .